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Peak, H., & Morrison, W. (1958). The acceptance of information into attitude structure. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 57, 127-135.

This study examines the relation between attitude position and the acceptance of information. 169 college students served as Ss. The experimental group listened to arguments about racial segregation in a manner intended to produce involvement in the situation while the control group spent time with tasks unrelated to segregation. Attitudes toward negro housing segregation were determined both before and after these procedures and at the conclusion all Ss listed good and bad consequences resulting from integration. Some of the major findings were that in the control group attitude position is significantly related to relevant items of information which is accepted and that the amount of information knows does not vary consistently with attitude position. Additional findings are presented and discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

Just as people defend against threats to personal identity, they also defend against threats to social identity. In the context of intergroup transgression, the defensiveness against social identity threat has the effect of undermining collective guilt and its prosocial consequences. However, there may be ways for perpetrator groups to alleviate threat without undermining guilt. Five studies examined whether perpetrator groups are more willing to acknowledge collective guilt once social identity threat has been buffered by ingroup-affirmation. As predicted, Study 1 revealed that men accepted greater collective guilt for the mistreatment of women after affirming their ingroup. Replicating this effect, Study 2 revealed that, following ingroup-affirmation, Canadians accepted greater collective guilt over the mistreatment of Aboriginal children in residential schools. In light of the theoretical distinction between collective guilt and collective shame, Studies 3 and 4 examined the effect of ingroup-affirmation on each emotion. Results revealed that, as with collective guilt, Canadians accepted greater collective shame following ingroup-affirmation. More importantly, ingroup-affirmation moderated the relation of each emotion with compensation. Specifically, when controlling for each other, collective shame predicted compensation only when social identity threat was left unchecked, whereas collective guilt predicted compensation only when social identity threat had been disarmed by ingroup-affirmation. Finally, Study 5 provided direct evidence that the effect of ingroup-affirmation is mediated by defensiveness. Specifically, ingroup-affirmation lowered defensiveness, which in turn freed group members to acknowledge greater collective guilt and greater collective shame. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

Investigates the subjective experience of control and how this experience moderates the impact of sterotypic vs individuating information in social judgment. In the 1st section of this chapter, the authors review the literature on control. It is proposed that control might be conceived as a kind of subjective experience, that is, a cognitive assessment that is about the cognitions of the self. It is also suggested that giving people control over the course of an event could change the perception of the event. In the 2nd section, an overview of work on stereotype change is provided. The authors argue that the research on stereotyping has misrepresented the social thinker. In the 3rd section, the authors test the idea that perceived control over the impression formation leads people to assign different weights to the stereotypic information on the one hand and the individuating information on the other. Evidence is presented showing that the mode of information acquisition (active vs passive; i.e., controlled or not controlled) makes a difference as far as the relative impact of both kinds of data is concerned. In the final section, the authors examine the mechanisms that could account for the influence of the perceived control over the information-gathering episode. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

Ageism, or discrimination based on assumptions about abilities and cognitive understanding based on a worker’s age, still prevails in the modern workplace, often disguised as business decisions, lack of advancement opportunities, and continuing mandatory retirement ages. Additionally, negative assumptions about younger workers also exist, some of which harm young workers in the workplace. All forms of ageism have negative effects on the workplace, such as disrupting morale, being dismissive of the experiences and value that older workers contribute, and in return set precedence for other forms of discrimination. Ageism can impact everyone in the workplace. Although the passage of anti-discrimination legislation has curtailed some of the more obvious forms of discrimination, the psychological underpinnings behind age discriminatory behavior still exist and must be mitigated to ensure a fair playing field for all people. In this study, the researcher examined ways a worker can be discriminated against based on assumptions about age and explores ways discriminatory behavior can be mitigated. Furthermore, the full extent to which anti-discrimination legislation has provided a positive, and occasionally negative impact is also discussed. Discrimination never truly goes away; it only changes form. When the psychological motivators behind discrimination are not properly addressed, managers themselves might harbor discriminatory assumptions about their workers. A quantitative method was employed to identify factors and determine the best ways to combat factors that contribute to age discrimination. The findings indicated that some forms of ageism can be combatted by using certain forms of cognitive conditioning and self-assessment for hiring managers. All of the participants were hiring managers who took part in cognitive exercises designed to gain information about their opinions, but also induce a self-reflective means of evaluating their own prejudices. The evidence indicated that some factors, such as gender, do not iv play as large of a role as previously assumed, but that the age of the manager does play a small role in age discrimination in hiring. It was concluded that ageism does still exist, but that these assumptions can be countered effectively, which implies that better sensitivity and managerial training could be beneficial for hiring managers.

Lindner, N. M., Graser, A., & Nosek, B. A. (2014). Age-Based Hiring Discrimination as a Function of Equity Norms and Self-Perceived Objectivity. PLoS ONE, 9, e84752.

Participants completed a questionnaire priming them to perceive themselves as either objective or biased, either before or after evaluating a young or old job applicant for a position linked to youthful stereotypes. Participants agreed that they were objective and tended to disagree that they were biased. Extending past research, both the objective and bias priming conditions led to an increase in age discrimination compared to the control condition. We also investigated whether equity norms reduced age discrimination, by manipulating the presence or absence of an equity statement reminding decision-makers of the legal prohibitions against discrimination “on the basis of age, disability, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, or sex.” The presence of equity norms increased enthusiasm for both young and old applicants when participants were not already primed to think of themselves as objective, but did not reduce age-based hiring discrimination. Equity norms had no effect when individuals thought of themselves as objective – they preferred the younger more than the older job applicant. However, the presence of equity norms did affect individuals’ perceptions of which factors were important to their hiring decisions, increasing the perceived importance of applicants’ expertise and decreasing the perceived importance of the applicants’ age. The results suggest that interventions that rely exclusively on decision-makers' intentions to behave equitably may be ineffective.

Rosenmann, A. (2015). Alignment with globalized Western culture: Between inclusionary values and an exclusionary social identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 26–43.

Reactions to globalized Western culture (GWC) are influential in shaping intergroup relations and social issues worldwide. GWC is conceptualized here as an inclusionary cultural value system but a simultaneously exclusionary social identity. Whereas GWC's inclusive values may promote the civil liberties and fair treatment of gay people, for instance, as a social identity, groups may use their alignment with GWC to buttress ingroup superiority over less aligned outgroups. Three studies (one correlational and two experimental in design) probe these opposing vectors in samples of Jewish-Israelis, who are generally highly aligned with GWC. Results demonstrate that GWC alignment is associated with decreased anti-gay prejudice (Studies 2 and 3) but exclusionary responses towards Arab individuals and groups (Studies 1, 2, and 3), who are perceived to be less aligned with GWC. Conducted during the 2014 Israeli-Palestinian war, Study 3 notably demonstrated that a GWC identification prime reduced Jewish-Israelis' willingness to offer humanitarian assistance to Palestinian civilians in need. This may suggest that in some contexts, GWC's divisive function as a social identity supersedes its more inclusionary humanistic values. These contrary effects of GWC alignment by social target are discussed, alongside their implications on national, regional, and international levels.

Researchers tested 281 undergraduates to determine if positive behavior messages about African American males presented during a learning task affected scores on explicit and implicit racial prejudice measures. During the learning task, we manipulated how many positive messages the participant viewed (100 vs. 150 or none) and the amount of African American males these messages applied to (1 vs. 3). Participants who viewed 150 positive messages about one African American male displayed more explicit prejudice than participants in control groups or participants learning 100 messages about one person. Results for the implicit measure indicated that participants who learned about three people and viewed 150 messages had faster implicit associations between African American males and positive adjectives when compared to participants who viewed fewer messages or learned about only one person. These findings demonstrate that learning positive information about a target group generalized to other exemplars from that category, but only when there was more than one example.

Newman, W. M. (1973). American Pluralism: A Study of Minority Groups and Social Theory. Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.

This book addresses some basic issues and topics in the sociology of majority-minority relationships and attempts to evaluate and reformulate the conceptual and theoretical tools of the field. It is argued in Part I that majority-minority relationships must be understood as a case study in social stratification and as an opportunity for the study of total societies. A comparative perspective is employed in order to depict the distinctive features of the United States as a pluralistic society. In addition, various typological approaches to the study of minority groups are examined. Part II turns to the social processes of intergroup relations in the U.S. Chapter Three traces the historical emergence of the ideas of assimilation, amalgamation, and cultural pluralism, as well as the application and development of these theories in American sociology. Chapter Four places the study of majority-minority relationships in the context of social theory, and especially social conflict theory. Part III explores three related aspects of the consequences of intergroup conflicts. Chapter Five reviews some major trends of theory and research about prejudice and discrimination. Chpater Six constitutes a case study in the sociology of science. Finally, in a brief epilogue, the social meanings of minority group membership are examined from the perspective of role theory. (Author/JM)

Vezzali, L., Stathi, S., Giovannini, D., Capozza, D., & Visintin, E. P. (2015). And the best essay is... : Extended contact and cross-group friendships at school. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 601–615.

We conducted one experimental intervention based on extended contact principles aimed at fostering the formation of cross-group friendships within educational settings. Italian school children took part in a school competition for the best essay on personal experiences of cross-group friendships with immigrants, to be written in small groups. This manipulation was intended to favour the exchange of personal positive cross-group experiences, thus capitalizing on the benefits of extended contact. In the control condition, participants wrote an essay on friendship, without reference to cross-group relations. Results revealed that children who took part in the intervention reported a higher number of outgroup friends 3 months later. This indirect effect was sequentially mediated by pro-contact ingroup and outgroup norms and by outgroup contact behavioural intentions. This study provides experimental evidence that interventions based on extended contact can foster cross-group friendship formation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Wilder, D., & Thompson, J. Anxiety as a mediator of unsuccessful contact between groups. Rutgers University.
West, K., Turner, R. N., & Levita, L. (2015). Applying imagined contact to improve physiological responses in anticipation of intergroup interactions and the perceived quality of these interactions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45, 425–436.

This experiment (N = 49) is the first to show that imagined contact can buffer anticipatory physiological responses to future interactions, and improve the quality of these interactions. Participants imagined a positive interaction with a person with schizophrenia, or in a control condition, a person who did not have schizophrenia.

They then interacted with a confederate whom they believed had schizophrenia. Participants in the imagined contact condition reported more positive attitudes and less avoidance of people with schizophrenia, displayed smaller anticipatory physiological responses, specifically smaller changes in interbeat interval and skin conductance responses, and had a more positive interaction according to the confederate. These findings support applying imagined contact to improve interactions with people with severe mental illnesses.

Conducted a 2-stage study in France on the modification of stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims. In Stage 1, a questionnaire was administered to 722 Ss. The effect of objective information about Muslims throughout the world (representation of various ethnic and national origins) on the modification of the stereotypes was assessed 4 wks later. 315 Ss (experimental group) read about Arabs and Muslims, and their knowledge was tested. 315 other Ss (control group) did not receive any educational information. All 630 Ss were administered a questionnaire. The results indicate that stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims remained stable for control Ss, but the stereotype of Muslims underwent several changes for experimental Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Petersen, L.-E., & Krings, F. (2008). Are Ethical Codes of Conduct Toothless Tigers for Dealing with Employment Discrimination?. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 501–514.

This study examined the influence of two organizational context variables, codes of conduct and supervisor advice, on personnel decisions in an experimental simulation. Specifically, we studied personnel evaluations and decisions in a situation where codes of conduct conflict with supervisor advice. Past studies showed that supervisors’ advice to prefer ingroup over outgroup candidates leads to discriminatory personnel selection decisions. We extended this line of research by studying how codes of conduct and code enforcement may reduce this form of discrimination. Eighty German managers evaluated and selected candidates from an applicant pool including Germans (ingroup members) and foreigners (outgroup members). Supervisor advice to prefer ingroup members lowered suitability ratings of outgroup members as well as their chances to be selected for an interview. Ethical codes of conduct referring to equal opportunities limited this form of discrimination, but only when codes were enforced by sanctions and integrated into organizational every-day practice. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

Yablon, Y. B. (2012). Are we preaching to the converted? The role of motivation in understanding the contribution of intergroup encounters. Journal of Peace Education, 9, 249–263.

The role of motivation to participate in peace encounters was examined against the popular claim that such programs mainly benefit those who already espouse peace-movement ideas. The self-determination theory served as the theoretical framework for the study. Jewish and Arab high-school students (N = 330) were randomly assigned to research and control groups based on their motivation to participate in peace encounters. The findings revealed that those who benefited most and whose social relationships were significantly enhanced by participation in the program were participants who were extrinsically motivated. Those who were a motivated gained nothing but did not deteriorate, whereas their counterparts in the control group deteriorated. Those who were intrinsically motivated did not gain much from their participation but did not deteriorate, even without the encounters (in the control group). Theoretical and pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed.

Boag, E. M., & Carnelley, K. B. (2016). Attachment and prejudice: The mediating role of empathy. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55, 337–356.

In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment–avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice.

O’Brien, M. E. (2003). An attitude functions approach to changing prejudiced attitudes: Vol. Doctor of Philosophy (p. 4681) [The University of North Carolina at Greensboro]. Referenced from An attitude functions approach to changing prejudiced attitudes

There is much literature suggesting that attitudes serve a variety of psychological functions for the individual (Eagly & Chaiken, 1998). A key assumption in this literature is that knowing the psychological function of a particular attitude will enhance the ability to induce attitude change by allowing one to address the underlying psychological basis of the attitude. One area of particular interest for attitude change is that of prejudice. The current study examined the effectiveness of an attitude functions manipulation on changing (i.e., reducing) prejudiced attitudes. A pilot study showed that the value-expressive function was successfully induced compared to a control condition. The main experiment indicated that participants in the value-expressive condition did not change their attitude toward an affirmative action policy more so after reading a value-based message than a peer-based message. As such, the functional matching hypothesis was not supported.

Yawkey, T. D. (1973). Attitudes Toward Black Americans Held by Rural and Urban White Early Childhood Subjects Based Upon Multi-Ethnic Social Studies Materials. The Journal of Negro Education, 42, 164-169.

Used social studies multiethnic materials with 7-7.5 yr old white children in an urban and a rural school to establish what attitude changes would occur, if any, toward black Americans. The treatment effect was based on a teacher-directed reading and discussion of selected social studies books. Results indicate that this treatment effect produced (a) a statistically significant attitude change in a direction favorable to the American black in urban school Ss and (b) a favorable attitude change toward the American black in rural school Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Crisp, R. J., & Husnu, S. (2011). Attributional processes underlying imagined contact effects. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14, 275–287.

Recent research has demonstrated that mentally simulating positive intergroup encounters can promote tolerance and more positive intergroup attitudes. We explored the attributional processes underlying these effects. In our study participants who imagined intergroup contact subsequently reported greater intentions to engage in future contact, a relationship that was mediated by participants’ attribution, to themselves, of a more positive attitudinal orientation towards outgroup contact. Consistent with this attributional account, the perspective taken when imagining the encounter qualified this effect. Participants who imagined the encounter from a third-person perspective reported heightened intentions to engage in future contact relative to control participants, while this was not the case when the encounter was imagined from a first-person perspective. These findings suggest that attributional processes are key to observing the benefits that accrue from imagining intergroup contact. We speculate that these attributions may distinguish the approach from extended and actual forms of contact and help researchers to further capitalize on the benefits of mental imagery for improving intergroup relations.

Landis, D., Brislin, R. W., & Hulgus, J. F. (1985). Attributional training versus contact in acculturative learning: A laboratory study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 466-482.

A culture assimilator, a programmed learning technique for teaching about another culture, was combined with behavioral contact to test for the joint effectiveness of the two approaches to acculturative training. A total of 45 White male college students were randomly assigned to five training conditions in a modified Solomon four-group design. Results indicated significant differences between trained and untrained S s on knowledge of Black culture and better behavioral performance (as rated by Black confederates who were blind as to the training conditions) for S s receiving assimilator training followed by contact than the reverse condition. Apparently, the assimilator provides an opportunity to consolidate new attributions prior to their use in a real interaction. The reverse pattern (interaction before the formation of new attributions) is seen as anxiety producing and a test for the role of anxiety in intercultural training was generally positive. Possible implications of the results for cross-cultural training theory and methodology are discussed.

Does self-image threatening feedback make perceivers more likely to activate stereotypes when confronted by members of a minority group? Participants in Study 1 saw an Asian American or European American woman for several minutes, and participants in Studies 2 and 3 were exposed to drawings of an African American or European American male face for fractions of a second. These experiments found no evidence of automatic stereotype activation when perceivers were cognitively busy and when they had not received negative feedback. When perceivers had received negative feedback, however, evidence of stereotype activation emerged even when perceivers were cognitively busy. The theoretical implications of these results for stereotype activation and the relationship of motivation, affect, and cognition are discussed.

Saguy, T., Szekeres, H., Nouri, R., Goldenberg, A., Doron, G., Dovidio, J. F., Yunger, C., & Halperin, E. (2015). Awareness of Intergroup Help Can Rehumanize the Out-Group. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 551–558.

Dehumanizing the enemy is one of the most destructive elements of intergroup conflict. Past research demonstrated that awareness of harm that the in-group imposed on a specific out-group can increase out-group dehumanization as means of justifying the harm. In this research, we examined whether the opposite process would occur when people become aware of help given to an adversary. We reasoned that the need to justify a good deed toward a persistent enemy can result in more human-like out-group attributions. In two experiments, Israeli-Jews read about their group either helping Palestinians or not. In Study 1, awareness of help provided by the in-group to the out-group resulted in greater out-group humanization. In Study 2, we further established that when a third party helped the out-group, the rehumanization effect was not obtained, suggesting that the phenomenon is of specific intergroup nature. Theoretical and applied implications for conflict resolution are discussed.

Banerjee, R., & Gupta, N. D. (2015). Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-Based Caste Prejudice. PLOS ONE, 10, e0118546.

Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste.


Turner, R. N., & West, K. (2012). Behavioural consequences of imagining intergroup contact with stigmatized outgroups. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 15, 193–202.

We investigated whether imagining contact with an outgroup member would change intergroup behaviour. Participants who had imagined a positive interaction with an outgroup member or an unspecified stranger were told that they were about to take part in a discussion task with an outgroup member. They were taken to a room and asked to set out two chairs ready for the discussion while the experimenter left, ostensibly to find the other participant. The distance between the two chairs was then measured. Undergraduate students who imagined talking to an obese individual (Experiment 1) or a Muslim individual (Experiment 2) placed the chairs significantly closer than those in the control condition. They also reported more positive feelings and beliefs regarding Muslims. These findings highlight an important practical application of imagined contact: preparing people for successful face-to-face contact.

Barnard, W. A., & Benn, M. S. (1988). Belief congruence and prejudice reduction in an interracial contact setting. The Journal of Social Psychology, 128, 125-134.

The effect of shared beliefs on the reduction of prejudicial attitudes in an interracial contact setting was investigated. Seventy-four white males from a small rural college participated in discussion groups, each including 3 black and 2 white male confederates instructed to agree or disagee with the subject. Overall prejudicial attitudes toward Blacks were assessed prior to, immediately following, and 6 weeks after the discussion sessions. Greater prejudice reduction and more positive interpersonal perceptions were expected when Blacks and Whites exchanged similar as opposed to dissimilar beliefs. Perceptions of fellow group members, obtained immediately following each session, varied predictably as a function of agreement and disagreement conditions. Overall prejudice reduction, however, was indicated across all interracial contact groups, suggesting that belief congruity was not necessary.

Simão, C., & Brauer, M. (2015). Beliefs about group malleability and out-group attitudes: The mediating role of perceived threat in interactions with out-group members. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 10–15.

Recent research suggests that inducing fixed (rather than malleable) beliefs about groups leads to more negative attitudes toward out-groups. The present paper identifies the underlying mechanism of this effect. We show that individuals with a fixed belief about groups tend to construe intergroup settings as threatening situations that might reveal shortcomings of their in-group (perceived threat). In the present research, we measured (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) participants' lay theories about group malleability. We found that the extent to which individuals had an entity (versus an incremental) group theory influenced the level of threat they felt when interacting with out-group members, and that perceived threat in turn affected their level of ethnocentrism and prejudice. These findings shed new light on the role of lay theories in intergroup attitudes and suggest new ways to reduce prejudice. 

Aydogan, A. F., & Gonsalkorale, K. (2015). Breaking down a barrier: increasing perceived out-group knowledge reduces negative expectancies about intergroup interaction. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 401–408.

Although intergroup contact is an effective way of reducing prejudice, negative expectancies about interacting with out-group members often create a barrier to intergroup contact. The current study investigated cognitive appraisals by which negative expectancies may arise. Specifically, we examined whether increasing Anglo Australians' appraisals of their knowledge about Muslims would reduce their negative expectancies about an (ostensible) upcoming interaction with a Muslim Australian. Participants (89 Anglo Australians) completed a test that provided positive feedback either on their knowledge about Muslims or on their general knowledge (control). As predicted, Anglo Australians who received positive feedback on their knowledge about Muslims had a lower threat appraisal and expected to feel less anxious during the intergroup interaction compared with those who were in the control condition. This provides support for the precursory role out-group knowledge may have as a resource that is appraised upon the prospect of an intergroup interaction.

Forscher, P. S., Mitamura, C., Dix, E. L., Cox, W. T., & Devine, P. G. (2017). Breaking the prejudice habit: Mechanisms, timecourse, and longevity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 72, 133–146.

The prejudice habit-breaking intervention (Devine, Forscher, Austin, & Cox, 2012) and its offshoots (e.g., Carnes et al., 2015) have shown promise in effecting long-term change in key outcomes related to intergroup bias, including increases in awareness, concern about discrimination, and, in one study, long-term decreases in implicit bias. This intervention is based on the premise that unintentional bias is like a habit that can be broken with sufficient motivation, awareness, and effort. We conducted replication of the original habit-breaking intervention experiment in a sample more than three times the size of the original (N = 292). We also measured all outcomes every other day for 14 days and measured potential mechanisms for the intervention's effects. Consistent with previous results, the habit-breaking intervention produced a change in concern that endured two weeks post-intervention. These effects were associated with increased sensitivity to the biases of others and an increased tendency to label biases as wrong. Contrasting with the original work, both control and intervention participants decreased in implicit bias, and the effects of the habit-breaking intervention on awareness declined in the second week of the study. In a subsample recruited two years later, intervention participants were more likely than control participants to object on a public online forum to an essay endorsing racial stereotyping. Our results suggest that the habit-breaking intervention produces enduring changes in peoples' knowledge of and beliefs about race-related issues, and we argue that these changes are even more important for promoting long-term behavioral change than are changes in implicit bias.

Witnessing others in need can be felt similarly to experiencing it oneself (empathy) and motivates assistance of those in need (prosocial action ). It is well-documented that empathy can occur automatically, but when those in need are not members of a social ingroup, empathy and prosocial action are undermined. One major ingroup—outgroup division in American and in other countries is based on race. Although most condemn racial discrimination, empathy and prosocial action are often lower, however unintentionally, in interracial contexts. In light of this empathy gap, it is important to identify psychological factors that could bolster empathy and prosocial action toward racial outgroup members in need. This dissertation asked whether mindfulness training – cultivating present-centered, receptive attention to one’s ongoing experiences –increases social sensitivity toward racial outgroup members, and is based on pilot research indicating that a brief mindfulness induction increased empathy and prosocial action in such contexts.

Healthy, self-identifying White women were randomized to either a brief (4-day) mindfulness training or a structurally-equivalent sham mindfulness training. Pre-post electroencephalographic measures of empathy toward video stimuli of outgroup members expressing sadness was assessed via prefrontal alpha frequency oscillations (i.e., frontal alpha asymmetry). Pre-post scenario-based spontaneous prosocial action toward Black individuals in need, and pre-post 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of empathy and prosocial action toward Black individuals (and other races) were conducted. Mindfulness training was expected to increase EEG- and EMA-based empathy toward Black individuals in need, as well as increase prosocial action toward such individuals in scenario and daily life (EMA) contexts.

Opposite of what was hypothesized, MT reduced post-intervention empathic simulation, relative to ST, as measured by frontal alpha asymmetry. Consistent with hypotheses, however, MT increased empathic concern for outgroup members expressing sadness during video stimuli observation, and increased post-intervention scenario-based prosocial action. However, the hypothesis that MT would predict increases in pre- to post-intervention daily EMA-based prosocial action was not supported. Providing somewhat convergent evidence, trait mindfulness predicted more frequent pre-intervention scenario-based and daily prosocial action toward outgroup members; trait mindfulness was not related to pre-intervention video-based EEG and self-reported empathy outcomes. Together these results suggest that mindfulness can enhance some indicators or empathy and prosocial behavior in interracial contexts. Mechanisms and implications of the findings are discussed.

Stell, A. J., & Farsides, T. (2015). Brief loving-kindness meditation reduces racial bias, mediated by positive other-regarding emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 40, 140–147.

The relationship between positive emotions and implicit racial prejudice is unclear. Interventions using positive emotions to reduce racial bias have been found wanting, while other research shows that positive affect can sometimes exacerbate implicit prejudice. Nevertheless, loving-kindness meditation (LKM) has shown some promise as a method of reducing bias despite increasing a broad range of positive emotions. A randomised control trial (n = 69) showed that a short-term induction of LKM decreased automatic processing, increased controlled processing, and was sufficient to reduce implicit prejudice towards the target’s racial group but not towards a group untargeted by the meditation. Furthermore, the reduction in bias was shown to be mediated by other-regarding positive emotions alongside increased control and decreased automaticity on the IAT. Non-other-regarding positive emotions conversely showed no correlation with bias. The study is the first to show that a short-term positive emotional induction can reduce racial prejudice, and aids the understanding of how positive emotions functionally differentiate in affecting bias. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

Stewart, B. D., & Payne, K. (2008). Bringing Automatic Stereotyping Under Control: Implementation Intentions as Efficient Means of Thought Control. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1332–1345.

The evidence for whether intentional control strategies can reduce automatic stereotyping is mixed. Therefore, the authors tested the utility of implementation intentions--specific plans linking a behavioral opportunity to a specific response--in reducing automatic bias. In three experiments, automatic stereotyping was reduced when participants made an intention to think specific counterstereotypical thoughts whenever they encountered a Black individual. The authors used two implicit tasks and process dissociation analysis, which allowed them to separate contributions of automatic and controlled thinking to task performance. Of importance, the reduction in stereotyping was driven by a change in automatic stereotyping and not controlled thinking. This benefit was acquired with little practice and generalized to novel faces. Thus, implementation intentions may be an effective and efficient means for controlling automatic aspects of thought. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Krämer, N. C., Eimler, S. C., Neubaum, G., Winter, S., Rösner, L., & Oliver, M. B. (2017). Broadcasting one world: How watching online videos can elicit elevation and reduce stereotypes. New Media & Society, 19, 1349–1368.

Research on non-hedonic entertainment suggests the experience of elevation as an important construct leading to beneficial outcomes such as prosocial motivation. This study builds on first findings in this realm by distinguishing between different meaningful media contents. In a 3 × 4 between-subjects online experiment, we varied type of video (beauty of the earth, unity of humankind, portrayals of human kindness, and funny control videos) and context of proliferation (presentation on an unknown video platform or on YouTube with low vs high number of views). Meaningful videos indeed led to greater elevation, more universal orientation, and prosocial motivation—with videos showing human kindness standing out against other forms of meaningful videos. Human kindness videos additionally fostered more positive attitudes toward stereotyped groups—mediated by the feeling of elevation and the subsequent feeling of universal orientation. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.

Adachi, P. J. C., Hodson, G., Willoughby, T., & Zanette, S. (2015). Brothers and sisters in arms: Intergroup cooperation in a violent shooter game can reduce intergroup bias. Psychology of Violence, 5, 455–462.

Objective: Video games increasingly have become multiplayer, and thus online video game players have the unique opportunity to cooperate with players from all over the world, including those who belong to different social groups. Consistent with research showing that intergroup cooperation leads to reductions in intergroup bias, playing a video game cooperatively with a member of a different social group (i.e., an outgroup member) may reduce bias. The goal of the current study, therefore, was to test whether playing a violent video game cooperatively with an outgroup member reduces intergroup bias toward that partnera's group. Method: In our investigation, Canadians (n = 138) played a violent video game cooperatively with an outgroup (American) or ingroup member against alien (i.e., zombie-like) enemies. Results: Cooperating with an outgroup member in a violent context for only 12 minutes generated large reductions in outgroup prejudice. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the potential for even violent video games to serve as prejudice interventions. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Chang, H. I., & Peisakhin, L. (2018). Building Cooperation among Groups in Conflict: An Experiment on Intersectarian Cooperation in Lebanon. American Journal of Political Science, 63, 146–162.

Societies divided along ethnic or religious lines suffer from persistent conflict and underprovision of public goods.Scholarly understanding of how to strengthen intergroup cooperation remains limited. In this study, we set out to test theeffectiveness of two interventions on intergroup cooperation: cross-group expert appeal and participation in a cross-groupdiscussion. The laboratory-in-the-field experiment is set in Lebanon’s capital, Beirut, and involves interactions between 180Shia and 180 Sunni Muslim participants. We find that the expert appeal increases intersectarian cooperation in settings thatdo not entail reciprocal exchange. On average, cross-sectarian discussions do not improve cooperation, but those discussionsin which participants delve deeply into the conflict’s causes and possible remedies are associated with greater cooperation.Neither intervention diminishes the effectiveness of sectarian clientelistic appeals. The policy implication of our study is thatintergroup cooperation can be strengthened even in regions as bitterly divided as the Middle East. 


Hodson, G., Dube, B., & Choma, B. L. (2015). Can (elaborated) imagined contact interventions reduce prejudice among those higher in intergroup disgust sensitivity (ITG-DS)?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45, 123–131.

Intergroup disgust sensitivity (ITG‐DS) reflects an affect‐laden revulsion toward out‐groups. Previous attempts to weaken its prediction of prejudice have failed. Given that clinical approaches to disgust sensitivity successfully utilize mental imagery, we consider contact simulation interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to control, standard imagined contact, or an elaborated contact condition (elaborated imagined contact [EIC]; detailed imagination involving physical contact with a homeless person, with relaxation instructions). Both contact conditions (vs. control) significantly weakened the link between ITG‐DS and prejudice, yet only EIC weakened the relation between ITG‐DS and out‐group trust. Mediated moderation analysis confirmed that EIC significantly attenuated the link between ITG‐DS and prejudice through increasing trust. Clinically relevant treatments are thus valuable in severing the association between (a) ITG‐DS and (b) lower out‐group trust and greater out‐group prejudice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Halperin, E., Porat, R., Tamir, M., & Gross, J. J. (2013). Can Emotion Regulation Change Political Attitudes in Intractable Conflicts? From the Laboratory to the Field. Psychological Science, 24, 106–111.

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 25(11) of Psychological Science (see record 2014-48143-019). In Figure 1 of this article, the signs for the coefficients on the direct paths from reappraisal to policy support were reported incorrectly. The coefficients on the path from reappraisal to support for conciliatory policies (top panel) should be positive, and the coefficients on the path from reappraisal to support for aggressive policies (bottom panel) should be negative. The corrected figure is included.] We hypothesized that an adaptive form of emotion regulation—cognitive reappraisal—would decrease negative emotion and increase support for conflict-resolution policies. In Study 1, Israeli participants were invited to a laboratory session in which they were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-reappraisal condition or a control condition; they were then presented with anger-inducing information related to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Participants in the reappraisal condition were more supportive of conciliatory policies and less supportive of aggressive policies compared with participants in the control condition. In Study 2, we replicated these findings in responses to a real political event (the recent Palestinian bid for United Nations recognition). When assessed 1 week after training, participants trained in cognitive reappraisal showed greater support for conciliatory policies and less support for aggressive policies toward Palestinians compared with participants in a control condition. These effects persisted when participants were reassessed 5 months after training, and at both time points, negative emotion mediated the effects of reappraisal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Schuhl, J., Lambert, E., & Chatard, A. (2019). Can Imagination Reduce Prejudice Over Time? A Preregistered Test of the Imagined Contact Hypothesis. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 41, 122–131.

Research on the imagined contact hypothesis suggests that simply imagining a positive interaction with an out-group member can reduce prejudice toward stigmatized social groups. To date, however, it remains unclear whether imagined contact has transient or long-lasting effects. This preregistered study (N = 153) tested the hypothesis that a single session of imagined contact is sufficient for reducing explicit and implicit prejudice toward a stigmatized social group and intergroup anxiety over several days. Highlighting the power of imagination, the results suggest that imagined contact could have long-lasting effects on explicit prejudice and intergroup anxiety. © 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Falvo, R., Capozza, D., Di Bernardo, G. A., & Pagani, A. F. (2015). Can imagined contact favor the “humanization” of the homeless? TPM–Testing, Psychometrics. Methodology in Applied Psychology, 22, 23–30.

Research on imagined contact, a new prejudice-reduction strategy, has demonstrated its beneficial effects on several aspects of intergroup relations. Emerging evidence has shown that this form of contact can positively affect humanness perceptions. The present study examined imagined contact as a means to improve humanity attributions to the homeless ― a stigmatized group strongly dehumanized. Participants (university students) were asked to imagine either a positive interaction with a homeless person or a control scene. Humanity attributions were assessed by using uniquely human (e.g., rationality) and non-uniquely human (e.g., impulsiveness) traits. As expected, after the mentally-simulated encounter, the homeless were perceived as more clearly characterized by uniquely human features. Practical implications of findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Neto, F., Pinto, M. da C., & Mullet, E. (2016). Can music reduce anti-dark-skin prejudice? A test of a cross-cultural musical education programme. Psychology of Music, 44, 388–398.

The study examined the impact of a cross-cultural musical programme on young Portuguese adolescents' anti-dark-skin prejudice. A sample of 229 sixth-grade pupils who attended public schools in the area of Lisbon, Portugal, were presented with the Implicit Association Test (IAT) - an instrument that measures the strength with which dark-skinned faces or light-skinned faces are associated with attributes that can be considered as negative or positive, and with a test measuring explicit anti-dark-skin prejudice. Half of the pupils were subsequently exposed, at school, to a 6-month musical programme that included Cape Verdean songs and Portuguese songs. The other half was exposed to the usual programme. Measures taken at the end of the programmes showed a reduction in anti-dark-skin prejudice, either implicit or explicit, among pupils in the experimental group and no reduction among pupils in the control group. Measures taken 3 months later and 2 years later showed that the impact of the experimental programme was enduring. © The Author(s) 2015.

Scacco, A., & Warren, S. S. (2018). Can Social Contact Reduce Prejudice and Discrimination? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Nigeria. American Political Science Review, 112, 654–677.

Can positive social contact between members of antagonistic groups reduce prejudice and discrimination? Despite extensive research on social contact, observational studies are difficult to interpret because prejudiced people may select out of contact with out-group members. We overcome this problem by conducting an education-based, randomized field experiment—the Urban Youth Vocational Training program (UYVT)—with 849 randomly sampled Christian and Muslim young men in riot-prone Kaduna, Nigeria. After sixteen weeks of positive intergroup social contact, we find no changes in prejudice, but heterogeneous-class subjects discriminate significantly less against out-group members than subjects in homogeneous classes. We trace this finding to increased discrimination by homogeneous-class subjects compared to non-UYVT study participants, and we highlight potentially negative consequences of in-group social contact. By focusing on skill-building instead of peace messaging, our intervention minimizes reporting bias and offers strong experimental evidence that intergroup social contact can alter behavior in constructive ways, even amid violent conflict.

Prejudice continues to be a deeply entrenched problem throughout the world today. Entertainment media are among the most powerful communicators of information that shape social attitudes and norms. Recent studies show that entertainment media (e.g., sitcoms) can effectively reduce prejudice towards targeted minority groups, but little is known about the psychological processes occurring when such changes take place. Research has demonstrated that social norms and perceptions of them are highly predictive of people‚s attitudes and behaviors. The current research explores how entertainment television media influence social norms and intergroup attitudes. In the Pilot Study, we completed a systematic multi-step process to create standardized experimental video stimuli for use in subsequent research including Studies 1 and 2. In Study 1, we examined whether entertainment television shows that make salient a social norm of valuing diversity and behaving inclusively influence people‚s perceptions of social norms regarding diversity and reduce prejudice compared to matched control shows. In Study 2, we compared entertainment television shows that make salient pro-diversity social norms to shows that make salient other psychological constructs related to prejudice reduction (i.e., intergroup friendship, minority counterstereotypicality). Across the studies, we found that television shows that make salient pro-diversity social norms can effectively improve intergroup attitudes and increase inclusive behaviors, and that, in some cases, they do this more strongly than shows that make salient other psychological constructs related to reducing prejudice.

Three explicit measures of prejudice and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to examine the effectiveness of a theory-based culture assimilator on reducing implicit and explicit prejudice. It was hypothesized that both explicit and implicit scores would be reduced by the assimilator. The data did not support either hypothesis. Measures of explicit prejudice were not affected by the assimilator. Though no significant differences were found between the control and experimental groups, there were significant differences found on the Implicit Association Test within the experimental group. Men demonstrated slower reaction times, indicated by higher IAT scores after the assimilator, while women demonstrated faster reaction times, indicated by lower IAT scores after the assimilator. Post-hoc analysis of pretest scores found that men were significantly higher on the Modern Racism Scale than women. This trend was also seen on the Discrimination and Diversity Scales, though it did not reach significance. The data in this study and other recent studies, further questions what the IAT is measuring. It now appears more likely that the IAT is tapping into an affective component of attitudes and prejudice. It is uncertain why explicit scores of prejudice did not change after training with the assimilator. One possibility is that by openly informing participants of the purpose of the study-to study prejudice-, adjustments for social appropriateness were made prior to pre-testing. Alternatively, the assimilator may not be effective in shifting explicit scores of prejudice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Costa-Lopes, R., Pereira, C. R., & Judd, C. M. (2014). Categorisation salience and ingroup bias: The buffering role of a multicultural ideology. International Journal of Psychology, 49, 508–512.

The current work sought to test the moderating role of a multicultural ideology on the relationship between categorisation salience and ingroup bias. Accordingly, in one experimental study, we manipulated categorisation salience and the accessibility of a multicultural ideology, and measured intergroup attitudes. Results show that categorisation salience only leads to ingroup bias when a multiculturalism ( MC ) ideology is not made salient. Thus, MC ideology attenuates the negative effects of categorisation salience on ingroup bias. These results pertain to social psychology in general showing that the cognitive processes should be construed within the framework of ideological contexts.

Flores, A. R., Haider-Markel, D. P., Lewis, D. C., Miller, P. R., Tadlock, B. L., & Taylor, J. K. (2017). Challenged Expectations: Mere Exposure Effects on Attitudes About Transgender People and Rights. Political Psychology, 39, 197–216.

Social categorization processes may be initiated by physical appearance, which have the potential to influence how people evaluate others. Categorizations ground what stereotypes and prejudices, if any, become activated. Gender is one of the first features people notice about others. Much less is known about individuals who may transgress gender expectations, including people who are transgender. Using an experiment, this study investigates whether the attitudes that people have about transgender people and rights are influenced by information and facial images. We hypothesize that mere exposure to transgender people, via information and images of faces, should be a source of prejudice reduction. We randomly provide participants with vignettes defining transgender and also randomize whether these vignettes come with facial images, varying the physical features of gendered individuals. We find our treatments have lower levels of discomfort and transphobia but have little effect on transgender rights attitudes. We further find that the impacts are stronger among Democrats than among Republicans. Our findings support the argument that people are in general unfamiliar with transgender people, and the mere exposure to outgroups can be a source of prejudice reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

Hantzi, A. (1995). Change in stereotypic perceptions of familiar and unfamiliar groups: The pervasiveness of the subtyping model. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 463-477.

The present study examined change in stereotypic perceptions of occupational groups, using a 2 (pattern of presented stereotype inconsistent information: concentrated in a few members vs. dispersed across all members) X 2 (perceived group variability: homogeneous vs. heterogeneous) X 2 (familiarity with the group: familiar vs. unfamiliar) design, following the procedure used by Hewstone, Johnston & Aird (1992). There was no support for the ‘conversion’ model. Stereotype change was generally greater in dispersed than in concentrated conditions, while subtyping was stronger in concentrated than in dispersed conditions. There was limited evidence that familiarity might moderate the effects of pattern of disconfirming information and perceived group variability. Stereotype change was mediated by perceived typicality of disconfirming instances. Results were interpreted in terms of a prototype version of the subtyping model (cf. Hewstone, 1994; Johnston & Hewstone, 1992).

Litcher, J. H., & Johnson, D. W. (1969). Changes in attitudes toward Negroes of white elementary school students after use of multiethnic readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 60, 148-152.

Investigated the effect of curriculum materials which portray Negroes in a way which is contradictory to prevailing prejudices and stereotypes upon the attitudes toward Negroes of white 2nd-grade school children in a Midwestern city. A pretest-posttest design controlling for the teacher, the classroom, the school, and the reading ability of Ss was used. The 34 children in the experimental groups used a multiethnic reader which included characters from several different racial and ethnic groups for 4 mo., while the 34 children in the control groups used the regular reader which included only whites. Use of the multiethnic reader resulted in marked positive change in Ss' attitudes toward Negroes, supporting the counter-conditioning hypothesis. (23 ref.) (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

According to cognitive dissonance literature, attitudes are notably fixed. Frame studies, in contrast, have concluded that cognition is fluid and that opinions are markedly variable. Examination of the literature revealed that while dissonance studies commonly employ interventions which argue against subjects' held ideas, frame studies typically test the effects on opinions of different ways of framing problems. Attribution of the incompatible results to these differences in intervention strategies (termed here information-oriented and rule-oriented, respectively) is precluded, however, by further differences in research formats. While cognitive dissonance studies typically employ a pre-posttest design, frame studies use different groups of subjects across conditions. In order to allow comparison of the relative efficacy of both information and rule-oriented interventions on attitude change, this study employed a uniform pre-posttest format. The opinions explored were ideas about the Russians. One scale examining attitudes and another examining perceptions of similarity constituted the dependent variables. Four vignette interventions constituted the independent variables. An information-oriented vignette argued against stereotyped ideas of the Russians as our enemies. There were two rule-oriented vignettes. One introduced a new Us - Them decision rule by juxtaposing the Russians to another, more extreme outgroup, "crazies," like Khomeini and Qadafi, portrayed as far more undesirable (More Extreme Outgroup intervention). The other rule-oriented intervention redrew group boundaries, switching Us - Them from Americans vs Russians to people of the world vs politicians and military (Politicians vs. People intervention). The fourth Vignette discussed the need for international studies programs in college and served as the control. Comparison of pre and posttest scores revealed a significant change in the Politicians vs People condition for both attitudes (t = $-$2.95, df = 39, p $<$.005) and perceptions of similarity (t = $-$2.77, df = 39, p $<$.009) There were no significant differences in any of the other intervention conditions. Significant findings were discussed in terms of the complex semantic environment in which attitudes toward the Russians are constructed. Lack of other predicted findings was discussed in terms of possible methodological shortcomings as well as theoretical considerations. In addition, the validity of dichotomizing rule-oriented and information-oriented interventions was questioned and a more subtle, complex relationship hypothesized.

Browna, R., Vivian, J., & Hewstone, M. (1999). Changing attitudes through intergroup contact: the effects of group membership salience. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 741-764.<741::AID-EJSP972>3.0.CO;2-8

Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that heightened membership salience, achieved by increasing the prototypicality of particular outgroup members during cooperative intergroup contact, facilitates the generalization of positive attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole. The first study (N=64) utilized an experimental paradigm in which the perceived typicality of a target outgroup member and the perceived homogeneity of the outgroup as a whole were manipulated. Consistent with our hypothesis, results indicated that positive attitudinal generalization was facilitated by encounters with typical outgroup members. The effects of membership prototypicality were further examined in a second study (N=293) where a survey was administered in six European Community countries. Results supported the hypothesis that membership salience moderates the impact of contact on a generalized measure of favourable orientation towards another country. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Prejudice against lesbian women and gay men is widespread. Intolerance ranges from negative beliefs to exclusion from mainstream society, denial of civil rights and legal protection, as well as harassment and physical violence. Furthermore, it is socially acceptable to hold negative attitudes toward this group. There is no condemnation for doing so, unlike the case with racism. Given the extent of oppression faced by lesbians and gay men, research on attitude change is critical. This study explored the characteristics of college students that contribute to negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, and investigated whether Rokeach’s method of self-confrontation is a useful intervention for attitude change. Students (N = 293) from introductory sociology classes comprised norm, experimental, and control groups. The following instruments were used in pretest and posttest conditions: the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG) Scale, three questions to assess the amount and type (positive or negative) of contact with lesbians and gay men, and a demographic questionnaire. The experimental group intervention consisted of a modified version of the method of self-confrontation. Multiple regression analysis showed that the following factors contributed to attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: size of home town, positive contact, negative contact, and the RVS value Equality. Results of LISREL path analysis showed statistically significant treatment effects. Attitudes changed in the desired direction; however, the method of self-confrontation was not supported, as attitude change did not coincide with value change. The positive change in attitudes toward lesbian women and gay men was interpreted in terms of the effects of analyzing reasons for attitude change and the moderating role of attitude accessibility.

The current research tested a recent development in social psy-chology, namely 'imagined contact', among young children (n = 123, 5 to 10 years). Children imagined interacting with a physically disabled child, or did not take part in this activity (the control group). Compared with the control group, children who engaged in 'imagined contact' subse-quently showed reduced intergroup bias in their general attitude and rat-ings of warmth and competence. Imagined contact also led to more posi-tive intended friendship behavior towards the disabled, but only among 5-6 year olds. This provides partial support for our hypothesis that younger children, perhaps as a result of their lack of outgroup experience, are more likely to benefit from imagined contact. Implications for the development of attitudes towards the disabled, imagined contact theory and the development of classroom-based prejudice-reduction techniques based on imagined contact are discussed. © 2011: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia.

Cameron, L., Rutland, A., Browna, R., & Douch, R. (2006). Changing Children’s Intergroup Attitudes Toward Refugees: Testing Different Models of Extended Contact. Child Development, 77, 1208-1219.

The present research evaluated an intervention, derived from the “extended contact hypothesis,” which aimed to change children's intergroup attitudes toward refugees. The study (n=253) tested 3 models of extended contact among 5- to 11-year-old children: dual identity, common ingroup identity, and decategorization. Children read friendship stories based upon these models featuring in- and outgroup members. Outgroup attitudes were significantly more positive in the extended contact conditions, compared with the control, and this was mediated by “inclusion of other in self.” The dual identity intervention was the most effective extended contact model at improving outgroup attitudes. The effect of condition on outgroup intended behavior was moderated by subgroup identity. Implications for theoretically based prejudice-reduction interventions among children are discussed.